State Forestry Administration
February 27, 2006
I. Remarkable achievements have been made in forestry ecological improvement during the 10th Five-Year Plan period
During the 10th Five-Year Plan period, the Chinese government attached great importance to the forestry work, issued the Resolution on Accelerating Forestry Development, convened the National Forestry Working Meeting, and identified the forestry development strategy with ecological improvement as the core. Since the five years, China has launched six Key Forestry Programs, with remarkable achievements made in ecological improvement.
(I). The afforestation and greening cause was accelerated, the six Key Forestry Programs yielded substantial results.
During the past five years, the full implementation of the six Key Forestry Programs, i.e. the Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP), the Conversion of Cropland to Forest Program (CCFP), the Sandification Control Program for Areas in the Vicinity of Beijing & Tianjin, Key Shelterbelt Development Program in Such Regions as the Three North & the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River, the Wildlife Conservation & Nature Reserve Development Program, and the Forest Industrial Base Development Program in Key Regions with a Focus on Fast-growing & High-Yield Timber Plantations, has yielded substantial results, playing significant roles in improving ecological situation, facilitating agriculture and rural development and increasing farmers' income. The NFPP has brought 95 million ha of forest under effective protection, and reduced the consumption of forest by 430 million m3. The CCFP has benefited 120 million farmers of over 30 million households directly, the trend of desertification was curbed from expanding by 3436 km2 each year at the end of last century to reducing by 1283 km2 each year at present, the first reversion ever occurred since the founding of the People's Republic of China.
Under the drive of the six Key Forestry Programs, a total of 32 million ha of plantation has been established in the past five years, including 13.3 million ha of mountain closure, and 8.67 million ha of forest land converted from cropland. The total area of plantation has added up to 53 million ha. According to the result of the Six National Survey on Forestry Resources, the forest cover of China has increased from 16.55 percent to 18.21 percent, the forest stock volume has increased from 11.567 billion m3 to 12.456 billion m3. The National Compulsory Tree Planting Movement has been deepened continuously, a total of 2.75 billion person times of people have participated in the compulsory tree planting activity, with 12 billion trees planted. A new configuration of afforestation and greening is initially taken shape in which plantation established by program is the mainstay and the afforestation participated by the whole society and compulsory tree planting movement is developing jointly.
(II). Forest resources protection and management was enhanced, the natural ecological conservation capacity was improved.
The national forest resources protection and management has initially formed a working pattern with realization of sustainable forest management as the goal, forest tenure management as the core, comprehensive monitoring as the base and law enforcement and supervision as the guarantee. The forest administration cases were reduced from 450,000 cases to 430,000 cases, use right of over 90 percent of forest land has been identified with forest right certificates issued. A dozen of special programs were organized to address illegal activities, a series of large scale and key cases were urged and handled, the damage rate of forest fire were controlled within 0.1 percent, the control rate of creatures harmful to forestry was increased from 60 percent to 75 percent, the disaster-causing rate was decreased to less than 0.5 percent. During the five years, 790 nature reserves were newly built, which added up the total number of nature reserves to 1699, occupying 120 million ha of land area, accounting for 12.49 percent of the total national land. Stable artificial populations were developed for many rare and endangered wild fauna and flora, ensuring the stabilization and increasing of species resources. At present, a total of 473 wetland nature reserves were set up, 45 percent of natural wetlands were brought under conservation. The monitoring and control system on wildlife epidemic diseases and their sources were taking initial shape and playing active role.
(III). New progress has been made in forestry industry development.
The gross output value of forestry industry reached over 700 billion yuan in 2005, increased by two times than that in 2000. The traditional industries, such as timber, wood-based panel, rosin, furniture and economic forest, were intensifying continuously, the non-timber forest industries were growing rapidly, including bamboo and rattan, flowers, forest tourism, forest food, forest herbal medicine etc. A number of new industries were developing rapidly, including captive breeding of wild fauna and flora, bio-energy, and biomass material. The layout of forestry industries were optimized, generating a regionalized development pattern more and more obviously, and some provinces short in forest resources have fostered strong forestry industries.
(IV). Infrastructure construction was strengthened, the capacity to support and guarantee forestry development was enhanced remarkably
The forestry capital input has been increased substantially, the infrastructure construction was enhanced. The forestry scientific, technological and educational work was strengthened continuously, with over 1100 significant forestry scientific and technological achievements made, over 500 various criteria formulated, and 295 new products, new technologies and new processes developed independently. The forestry scientific and technological contribution rate has reached 35 percent. The international cooperation on forestry has been expanding continuously. The development of forest seedlings was enhanced, with over 0.267 million ha of forest fine seeds bases established, over 30 billion seedlings produced, and 26 million kg of forest seeds yielded. The use rate of forest fine seeds has reached 43 percent, increased by 23 percent during the past five years.
The overall development of township forestry working stations was further improved. The forestry legislation development has made new progress, 12 laws and regulations were promulgated, including the Desertification Combating Law and the Regulations on Converting Cropland to Forest; 19 forestry sector regulations were issued, which further regulates the administration and law enforcement of forestry.
II. The Objectives, Major Tasks and Measures to Be Taken for Forestry Development During the 11th Five-Year Guidelines Period
During the 11th Five-Year Guidelines period, we will strive for leading forestry work with ideology of scientific development, carrying out the Resolution on Accelerating Forestry Development implementing forestry strategy with ecological development as the core, speeding up promotion of a shift from traditional forestry to modern forestry, striving for building forestry ecological system and industrial system, carrying out forestry development programs, deepening reform of system, strengthening technical innovation, enhancing scientific management, changing growth model, improving quality and efficiency of forestry development, exploring multiple functions of forestry, meeting diversified demands of the society for forestry and propelling forestry to a new stage with rapid development.
By the year 2010, the forest cover in the country will be raised to 20 percent of the total land area, the forest stock volume 13.2 billion m3, and new controlled sandy land area 7.33 million ha. The total forests for public benefits, 50 percent of natural wetlands and 90 percent of wildlife at national level will be effectively protected. The nature reserve area will reach 125 million ha, forest parks 2800 and the forest cover in 70 percent of cities 30 percent. The comparatively complete forest ecological system with rational layout, stable structure, multiple functions and remarkable benefits will be basically built.
By the year 2010, the gross output value of forest industry will reach 1200 billion yuan, the commercial timber output 99.8 million m3, the rate of timber supply from plantations over 70 percent, the rate of timber comprehensive use 70 percent. The comparatively developed forest industrial system with remarkable scale, diversified products, superior layout, high quality and efficiency and strong competitiveness will be basically built.
(I). Paying adequate attention to the key forestry programs and accelerating the step of ecological management
In the 11th Five-Year Guidelines period, vegetation protection and rehabilitation will be the focus of ecological construction and the priority areas of ecological management will be highlighted. The effective management of the priority areas will motivate and promote comprehensive improvement of the ecological status of China.
Efforts will be concentrated on the implementation of the following Key Forestry Programs:
1. The Natural Forest Protection Program. A complete logging ban is put on the commercial harvest of the natural forest in the project areas in the upper reach of the Yangtze River and the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River. The 61.18 million ha natural and other types of forest will be protected, and due attention will be paid to the plantation, mountain closure and aerial sowing. The timber output in such key state-owned forest farms as the Northeast and Inner Mongolia is significantly adjusted and reduced in order to rehabilitate the forest resources in the project areas.
2. The Conversion of Farmland to Forest and Grassland Program. With an aim to convert all the farmlands with a slope grade no less than 25 degree and those hit by serious desertification into forest, the program includes the following priority target areas: the upper reach of the Yangtze River, the middle and upper reaches of the Yellow River, the sandstorm source area in the vicinity of Beijing and Tianjin, the key stony desertification area in the south, the water source area of the median line project of the South-to-North Water Diversion Program.
3. The Sandification Control Program for Areas in the Vicinity of Beijing and Tianjin. According to the program plan, the areas of plantation, aerial sowing afforestation, sand land closure, grassland management and watershed management will be increased. The counterpart water conservancy construction will be enhanced.
4. The Key Shelterbelt Development Program in the "Three North" and the Yangtze Basin. In the "Three North" area, sandification prevention and control, management of soil and water erosion, development of farmland shelterbelt are highlighted. In the Yangtze River and Zhujiang River Basins and the Taihang Mountain Area, the ecological management of larger rivers, lakes and reservoirs and mountain greening will be conducted well.
5. The Coastal Shelterbelt Development Program. Taking the western bank of Taiwan Straights, the Yangtze River Delta, Zhujiang River Delta and areas around Bohai Sea as priority areas, the coastal backbone forest and shelterbelt, conservation and rehabilitation of mangrove forest, wetland conservation and rehabilitation will be expanded and the capacity on resisting typhoon, storm tides and tsunami will be enhanced.
6. The Wildlife Conservation and Nature Reserve Development Program. Nature reserves will be established at all levels, and the demonstration nature reserves will be developed. The wildlife rescuing projects targeting on 15 wild fauna and flora will be continued, e.g. Giant Panda, Crested ibis (Nipponia nippon), Tibetan antelope (Panthalops hodgsonii). The wildlife rescue centers, captive breeding centers and genetic banks will be established.
7. The Wetland Conservation and Rehabilitation Program. 222 new wetland reserves are to be established, which will increase the number of wetland reserves to 523 in the country and make 50 percent natural wetlands and 70 percent key wetlands under effective protection.
8. The Integrated Management of Stony Desertification in the South Karst Areas Program. In order to gradually rehabilitate forest vegetation and improve the living and production conditions in the stony desertification areas, such measures as mountain closures, converting farmland to forest and grassland, tree and grass plantation, primary farmland development, rural energy and drinking water works for man and animal, ecological resettlement of local residents and development of feature industries will be taken.
9. Ecological Forest Development in the Key Water Source Areas. Ecological protection and development, infrastructure construction for improving the living and production conditions of the farmers and herdsmen, ecological monitoring will be conducted and the tendency of ecological vicious cycle in the Sanjiangyuan region will be reversed; the Ecological Forest Development Project in the water source area of the median line project of the South-to-North Water Diversion Program and greening belt development in the areas around the Three Georges will be continued.
10. Forest Park Development. A new group of forest parks will be established, which will increase the number of the forest parks to over 2800 nationwide. The national policies on protecting forest scenery resources will be developed, the national licensing system and onerous use system for exploiting and using state-owned forest scenery resources will be gradually established and the current infrastructure and supervision system of forest parks at national priority will be perfected.
11. Urban Forest Development. It is aimed that, by the end of 2010, the urban forest cover in 70 percent cities nationwide can be increased to 30 percent and the public green land per capita amounts to no less than 8 square meters.
(II). Management of forest protection and wildlife conservation should be intensified, so as to improve the protection ability
Efforts should be made to strengthen the construction of nature reserves and the protection of natural forests, wetlands and wildlife. We should strengthen the development of forest protection system and intensify the forest fire control, forest public security and disease and pest control. The rate of disasters caused by pests and diseases and main harmful species should be controlled under 0.45 percent, while the occurring rate of forest fires should be controlled under 0.1 percent. Emergency system for key forest disasters and monitoring system for wild fauna epidemic diseases and their sources should be improved in order to enhance the ability to tackle various forestry emergencies. A management system for forest resources should be established initially, which should focus on the forestry administrative management of resources and involve comprehensive resource monitoring and resource supervision and inspection, so as to intensify management of forest resources. Management of timber logging and forest land and tenure rights protection should be strictly adhered to. We should standardize management of forest resource harvesting and utilization and reinforce monitoring and supervision of forest resources.
Sustainable forest management and scientific conservation should be further stressed. Plans for forest management programs, guidelines for sustainable forest management, regulations on tending techniques for public welfare forests and other documents should be drafted and carried out. Efforts should also be made to promote tending of middle and young-aged forests and replacement of inferior and low yielding forests, to actively conduct the demonstration and experimentation on forest certification, to vigorously carry out classification and management of commercial forests and public welfare forests, and to strive for policy support of national special fund to key national public welfare forests.
(III). Development of the forestry industry should be actively promoted
During the 11th Five-Year Guidelines period, efforts should be made to guide and support forestry industry, establish and improve service system for development of forestry industry, expand forestry industries, and actively foster new and rising industries. Firstly, continuous attention should be paid to the Forest Industrial Bases Development Program in key Regions with a focus on Fast-growing and High-yielding Timber Plantations, in particular to the network for developing raw material forest industries, such as raw material forests in the southern part of China and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River as well as industrial raw material forests in the plain areas of the Yellow River, Huaihe River and Haihe River, and to the oriented breeding bases for various rare tree species in state-owned forest farms and forest enterprises. Secondly, wood-based panels with raw materials from high-yielding plantation, small diameter logs and inferior timber, should be promoted, while those with raw materials from large diameter logs should be moderately developed. Meanwhile, we should promote the integration of forests and wood-based panels. Thirdly, efforts should be intensified to develop fast-growing and high-yielding bio-energy forests with high heat energy and oil content. Fourthly, we should vigorously cultivate bamboo resources, establish a number of bamboo raw material bases, and develop intensive processing and high added value industries such as bamboo plywood, bamboo products and bamboo pulp and paper-making. Fifthly, stress should be put on development of famous, special, excellent and new economic forests with focus on woody edible oil to realize the transition from quantity to quality, in particular, on development of industrial belts, such as tropic and sub-tropical fruits, dry and fresh fruits, and medical plants. Sixthly, efforts should be made to develop and make use of indigenous tree species and wild flower resources, and to cultivate flower and tree seedlings with international competitiveness. Seventhly, we should promote development of forest tourism focusing on forest parks, while relying on natural reserves as well. It is planned to develop 10 forest eco-tourist routes, which hopefully will increase annually average number of tourists in the country to 400 million. Moreover, forest chemical industries such as rosin, turpentine oil, active carbon, and forest flavor, non-timber forest product harvesting and processing industries, such as forest medical herbs, potherbs, and edible funguses, wooden, bamboo and rattan furniture, wood product manufacturing industries, and wild animal breeding and utilization industries should be vigorously promoted.
(IV). Vigorously enhancing the essential work and building capacity on backup and guarantee
Such strategies as Invigorating Forestry through Science and Education, Managing Forestry according to Law and Strengthening Forestry through Talents will be carried out. The Six Forestry Technical Projects will be implemented, including ecological construction and ecological safety, forestry bio-technologies and fine seeds breeding, protection and use of biological germ plasma resources in forest, forestry biological industry development, digital forestry, capacity building on forestry scientific innovation. Urgent technical researches for production will be conducted, covering the collocation mode of forest and tree species, the plantation and harvest approaches, the forest management techniques, ecological management techniques for commercial plantation, commercial management techniques for ecological forest, the integrated management of farmland and forest, green GDP, accounting of value of forest ecological and social benefits. The regional forestry development strategy research will be made and the National Plan for the Forestry Talents Development in the 11th Five-Year Guidelines Period and for the Medium- to Long- Range will be developed and implemented. The forestry scientific research system, the transfer of research findings and technical extension system, the standards and quality check system and the scientific management system will be further developed, and the new national forestry technical innovation system will be built for the purpose of increasing the contribution rate of forestry technical progress to 45 percent. The good endangered tree species base development will be expanded in order to increase the supply rate of seed bases to 70 percent and the use rate of good seeds to 50 percent. The system on the administrative forest law enforcement and the supervision and check will be further developed and strengthened. The forest ecological compensation system will be built, complete forest law and regulation system, standardized administrative law enforcement system, efficient supervision system of administrative law enforcement and sound forest law publicity and education system will be basically established. The infrastructure construction in forestry will be made. International forestry exchange and cooperation will be further expanded and advanced technologies and management expertise will be actively introduced and absorbed.
(V). Enlarging the momentum of forestry reforms and strengthening the impetus and stamina of forestry development
In light of the principle of classification and multiple-steps, easy before difficult and pilot efforts prior to implementation, the forestry reforms are actively and stably pushed forward.
Firstly, integrated and counter reforms on the collective forest tenure system will be comprehensively carried out. Through "Two Reaching and Three Returning", i.e. property right reaching the household and individuals, returning the mountains, forest and profits to the people. Such policy measures enables the forest farmers engaged in farming activities to have its mountains, those engaged in mountain cultivation activities have its responsibilities, those engaged in forestry to have its benefits, those in pursuit of well-off life to find its channels. The National Experience Exchange Conference on the Collective Forest Tenure Reform will be held and the modus and experiences of Fujian and Jiangxi will be extended. And the Guidance Comments on Promoting the Collective Forest Tenure Reform will be worked out in order to guide and regulate the collective forest tenure reform.
Secondly, the state-owned forest farm reform will be solidly pushed forward. The Comments on Accelerating the Process of the State-owned Forest Farm Reform issued by the State Council will be carried out. And the standards for classifying ecological forest farms and commercial forest farms will be developed and the classification and scoping work will be completed as soon as possible. Coordination will be conducted for the implementation of the relative policies on the check, rectification and compilation of financial statements and bringing required funds of the ecological forest farms into the financial budget at the same level. The surplus forest workers' reallocation and the pension of forest workers will be fulfilled.
Thirdly, the forest institutional reform in the key state-owned forests in northeast and Inner Mongolia will be actively explored. Priority will be given to the pilot reform of forest tenure in the sate-owned forest in Yichun, Heilongjiang and pilot reform on the forest resources management mechanism in the key state-owned forests. The General Reform Plan for the Forest Resources Management Mechanism in the Key State-owned Forest will be worked out.
(China Development Gateway February 27, 2006)